Humans are the only source of CMV. The virus is found in urine, saliva, nasal mucous, breast milk, vaginal secretions and semen of infected people. The risk of transmission from children born with disability due to CMV infection is no greater than that from children who have CMV infection without symptoms. CMV is spread through:
- Close contact with a person excreting the virus in their saliva, nasal mucous, urine or other body fluid
- Handling children’s toys that have saliva or mucous on them, or handling contaminated items like dirty tissues or soiled nappies then touching the eyes, nose or mouth without first washing hands
- From mother to her unborn child as a result of maternal infection during pregnancy
- From mother to her unborn child as a result of virus reactivation during pregnancy
- Breast milk of an infected woman who is breast feeding
- Sexual contact.